The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix is a strategic tool which is used to evaluate alternative set of strategies. The QSPM incorporate earlier stage details in an organize way to calculate the score of multiple strategies in order to find the best match strategy for the organization.
The QSPM comes under the third stage of strategy formulation which is called “The Decision Stage” and also the final stage of this process. The best thing about QSPM is that it never insist the strategist to enter the information on assumptions, it extract the information from stage 1 The Input Stage and stage 2 the the matching stage. The input stage is based on EFE Matrix, IFE Matrix and CPM and stage 2 made up of TOWS matrix, SPACE Matrix, BCG Matrix, IE Matrix, Grand Strategy Matrix.The QSPM combine the intuitive thinking of managers with the analytical process to decide the best strategy for the organization success.
Format of Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
[adsense1]There are four main columns in QSPM, the left column list down the key internal and external key factors which are same as in EFE and IFE matrix. Adjacent column to key factors is Weight (relative importance of the factor) which hold the numeric value obtained from EFE and IFE matrix weight column. The next to weight is AS stands for attractive score assign priority to key factors using the numeric value 4 for most importance and 1 for least importance and the last column TAS (Total attractive score) is the value calculated by multiplying weight by AS. One thing important to note for each strategy separate AS and TAS value added in the table, weight remain same for all set of strategies mentioned in QSPM. The topmost shows the strategies are compared in the QSPM matrix, below mentioned table illustrate the structure of QSPM matrix.
Steps to develop Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)
Make a list of the firm’s key external opportunities/threats and internal strengths/weaknesses in the left column of the QSPM. This information should be taken directly from the EFE Matrix and IFE Matrix. A minimum of 10 external critical success factors and 10 internal critical success factors should be included in the QSPM.
Assign weights to each key external and internal factor. These weights are identical to those in the EFE Matrix and the IFE Matrix. The weights are presented in a straight column just to the right of the external and internal critical success factors.
Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices and identify alternative strategies that the organization should consider implementing. Record these strategies in the top row of the QSPM. Group the strategies into mutually exclusive sets if possible.
Determine the Attractiveness Scores (AS), defined as numerical values that indicate the relative attractiveness of each strategy in a given set of alternatives. Attractiveness Scores are determined by examining each key[linkunit] external or internal factor, one at a time, and asking the question, “Does this factor affect the choice of strategies being made?” If the answer to this question is yes, then the strategies should be compared relative to that key factor. Specifically, Attractiveness Scores should be assigned to each strategy to indicate the relative attractiveness of one strategy over others, considering the particular factor. The range for Attractiveness Scores is 1 = not attractive, 2 = somewhat attractive, 3 = reasonably attractive, and 4 = highly attractive. If the answer to the above question is no, indicating that the respective key factor has no effect upon the specific choice being made, then do not assign Attractiveness Scores to the strategies in that set. Use a dash to indicate that the key factor does not affect the choice being made. Note: If you assign an AS score to one strategy, then assign AS score(s) to the other. In other words, if one strategy receives a dash, then all others must receive a dash in a given row.
Compute the Total Attractiveness Scores. Total Attractiveness Scores are defined as the product of multiplying the weights (Step 2) by the Attractiveness Scores (Step 4) in each row. The Total Attractiveness Scores indicate the relative attractiveness of each alternative strategy, considering only the impact of the adjacent external or internal critical success factor. The higher the Total Attractiveness Score, the more attractive the strategic alternative (considering only the adjacent critical success factor).
Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness Score. Add Total Attractiveness Scores in each strategy column of the QSPM. The Sum Total Attractiveness Scores reveal which strategy is most attractive in each set of alternatives. Higher scores indicate more attractive strategies, considering all the relevant external and internal factors that could affect the strategic decisions. The magnitude of the difference between the Sum Total Attractiveness Scores in a given set of strategic alternatives indicates the relative desirability of one strategy over another.
Limitations of QSPM
A limitation of the QSPM is that it can be only as good as the prerequisite information and matching analyses upon which it is based. Another limitation is that it requires good judgment in assigning attractiveness scores. Also, the sum total attractiveness scores can be really close such that a final decision is not clear. Like all analytical tools however, the QSPM should not dictate decisions but rather should be developed as input into the owner’s final decision.
Advantages of QSPM
A QSPM provides a framework to prioritize the strategies, it can be used for comparing strategies at any level such as corporate, business and functional.The other positive feature of QSPM that it integrate external and internal factors into decision making process.A QSPM can be developed for small and large scale profit and non-profit organizations.