Advertising is basically paid promotion. It is that form of promotion which is delivered through a set of selected media, which is most appropriate for the product according to placement and future feedback. Modern advertising developed in the 19th and early 20th century. Advertising is always paid for; non-paid advertising is “publicity”. Advertising has long been viewed as a way to mass promote a single message, to reach a great number of audience or target market. Sometimes, the mass promotion approach tends to be a problem as most of the time the message is not exposed to the marketer’s target market which leads to excessive funding in the advertising campaign. However, with new means of advertising, the emergence of advanced technology and media outlets, as options for targeted advertising this problem has reduced. Advertising is used to persuade it’s viewers to take some action. Advertising is comprised of a product or service; it informs the consumers how that product/service could benefit them, or influences them to purchase the product for use or consumption. “Advertising also has a history of being considered a one-way form of marketing communication where the message receiver (i.e., target market) is not in position to immediately respond to the message (e.g., seek more information).”
Importance of Advertising
The amount spent on advertising is huge, the market research firm Zenith Optimedia quotes that, “worldwide spending on advertising is estimated to exceed (US) $400 billion.” This level of spending is said to support thousands of companies and provide millions of jobs worldwide, in-fact most media outlets would be out of business if not for the revenue generated through sale of advertising. Though advertising is an important contributor to economic growth worldwide it is a little differed in the role it plays to domestic advertising. Each organization has its own advertising needs, according to their budget and commercial requirements. Some companies do little advertising, and spend more money on other promotional options such as personal selling etc. then too, smaller companies advertise on a very small scale with the occasional placement of ads in the classified section of local newspapers and so on.
However most organizations rely on marketing to engage customer interest and gain consistent brand and product exposure. Advertising creates interest for consumers and helps marketers meet marketing objectives, but it requires developing eye-catching campaigns which involves a series of assessments for planning, creating, evaluating advertising attempts.
Types of Advertising
Types of advertising are usually confused with formats or mediums of advertising which may include the use of television, radio, print media etc. any how, on the whole type of advertising refers to the main focus of the message that is being sent, these fall in the following four categories:
• Image Advertising
• Advocacy Advertising
• Product-Oriented Advertising
• Public Service Advertising
Mediums Used for Advertising
The types of formats/mediums used for advertising include the following:
• Radio Advertising
• Print Advertising
• Online Advertising
• Billboard Advertising
• Mobile Billboard Advertising
• Covert Advertising
• In-store Advertising
This form of advertising is considered as the most effective mass-promotion advertising, it includes different kinds of commercials like voice over commercials, animated commercials etc. This is also the most expensive form of advertising. For example, “the annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television, the average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).”
Infomercials are TV commercials, only longer. These commercials are typically five minutes or more. They have recently become very popular, as their main objective is to create impulse purchase, viewers are provided with a toll free number on the screen as the commercial plays and they can book the product instantly, unlike other TV commercials where viewers have to wait to buy the product from the market.
This form of advertising is done via radio; the advertisements are broadcasted in-between radio shows. Marketers purchase airtime from stations or networks, unlike TV commercials, radio advertising is limited to sound which is also an advantage in some cases, as it reduces the cost.
This format of advertising is basically in printed form, and is presented in newspapers, magazines, journals etc. A form of print advertising is classified advertising which has small placements of ads for private individuals and companies for a low fee.
These include ads on the internet, and are usually placed on popular sites or search engine results wherever there is maximum traffic for maximum exposure. Examples of these ads are : “search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.”
Billboards are big structures located in public places; these boards display ads that are seen by all passersby’s in that location. They are usually located on main roads, stadium, and shopping malls basically at any place with immense public traffic.
Mobile Billboard Advertising
This is just like billboard advertising, but in digital form, this form of advertising uses digital screens or vehicles built solely for the purpose of the advertisement. These billboards are often lighted and have static displays which continuously change, occasionally rotating within a set of ads.
This form of advertising is also known as guerrilla advertising, it is used when a product or brand is embedded in a movie or drama, being used by a particular character etc. for example: a character in a movie using a Nokia mobile phone etc.
This requires for the advertisement to be placed in retail stores, for example the placement of the product or a cardboard replica of the product in the store is placed at eye level with eye-catching displays for the promotion of the product.
Advertised has evolved with time, though there are still some features that need working. “While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on Internet service providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.”