Marketing  is all about identifying and satisfying the needs of customer so the central focus is on customer but there are some other factors which companies have to consider  can be barrier in focusing on customer satisfaction activities some of the factors or variables are under the control of the organization/company which is called micro environment (controllable factors) and some of the factors and variable are not under the control of the organization/company which is called macro environment (uncontrollable factors).

Micro environment (controllable factors)

Micro environment means the environment with in the organization/company which is totally under the control. The factors which is included in micro environment i.e. customers, employees, suppliers, share holders, media and competitors.


The survival of the company/organization is on the basis of satisfying the needs and wants if realistic if the company/ organization fail to do so then the result will be failure


In order to gain competitive edge the company/organization has to employee the correct staff who should full fill the job requirement. The leaders should motivate them to work hard and training and development program should be there to make them better understand how to perform.


Closer relationship supplier is beneficial for the company /organization because the price and quality of raw material directly effect on the marketing mix strategy. If you have close relationship supplier he will not increase the price of raw material and serve you batter quality which results in good product and full fill the requirement, need and wants of customer.

Share holders

To turn the organization from private to public the company/organization need shareholder to invest in the company/ organization. You have to keep them in control and satisfy their need and wants and the over crowded shareholder may result in failure because company/organization can not full fill the needs of over crowded shareholders.


Media can also have positive and negative impact on the organization/company if the message is not conveyed to the target audience then it will be loss for an organization so that’s why it forces the organization to change their tactics to convey the right message to the right audience at right time.


To gain the competitive advantage there is only one way that is differentiation what benefits and features of product you are offering to you customer which is different from you competitor which makes you different from your competitor and as well make your product different from them.

Macro environment (uncontrollable factors)

It is the uncontrollable events or variables which are not directly under the control of the organization/company which ca influence the company/organization strategy. The un controllable factors will be discussed in the topic PEST analysis

PEST analysis


An organization/company is successful if they control the external and internal environment. For controlling external and internal environment they have to adopt the strategy which can give them advantage. The organization /company should not only understand the existing factors but they should also forecast the changes in the environment adopt strategy through which they can respond accordingly in order to get advantage.

Factors which are not directly in the control of companies i.e. Political, economical, social and technological.


First external factor is political environment which can influence the company/organizations in many ways there are political obligation and duties which can be followed other wise it will have negative influence on company if you follow the rules and obligation then it will be beneficial for company/organization. The obligations which the company have to follow is
•    Payment of taxes
•    Registered as trademark
•    Minimum wages (legislation)
•    Type of government communist, socialist, democratic, etc


Second external factor is economical environment which include the national and global economic factors like national and global interest rate, fiscal policy and economic recession in order to promote your business in uncertain economic condition you have to respond to the economical environment accordingly and you have to review that what impact of economic condition is taking place on your competitor and then respond accordingly


Third external factor is social in which the company/ organization need to understand the culture and norms of the society because culture and norms totally change the attitude of people the company have to respond to the people changes in the society according to their culture, norms and life style for example is some countries people like spicy food if you offer them Chinese food they will not like it and your Chinese restaurant will not earn profit


Fourth external factor is technological as the technology is advancing day by day so company / organization also have to respond to the technological change and technology plays an important role in an organization in past when ms excel was not introduce companies have to maintain manual balance sheets and income statements and it was very time consuming and also not accurate but now ms excel make their work so simple and accurate that’s why companies have to respond to the technological changes if its software, hard ware, computers , laptops mobile phone like black burry which consist of many function as compare to simple mobile specially made for business class.

Written By:

Khush Dil Khan Kasi