The x & y theory was proposed by an American psychologist Douglas McGregor in his book ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ in 1960. These theories are still commonly referred to in the field of management & motivation. McGregor’s theory is a constructive and effortless memento of the standard rules of managing people, which are easily forgotten under the pressure of routine business. His theory states that there are two primary approaches to managing people. Though recent studies have questioned the firmness of the model the theory still remains as an official essential principle from which management styles and techniques can be developed. This theory is vital for organizational progress and for the improvisation of organizational culture. ‘Theory y’ has been proven to give better results and allows room for improvement and development over ‘theory x’ when used by managers.

‘Theory x’ includes the following:

•  Work is usually disliked, and will be avoided by the worked if possible.

• Work is enforced with threats of punishment for the achievement of organizational goals.

• Direction is preferred in most cases as people tend to avoid responsibility and seek work security above other things.

•    Individuals require close supervision.

The x theory is also known as “the authoritarian management style” because it states that the average worker needs to be persuaded into completing company/organizational objectives.

‘Theory y’ includes the following:

• To put effort in work is as natural as work and play