Psychology can be defined as the science of activities of the individual. The science of human behavior is actually a group of sciences. On one side we find the physiology investigating the organs and cells that do the work of the organism and on the other hand we see the social sciences studying the nations and the groups of mankind. There is a room for a middle science that shall focus its attention on the individual. This middle science is called psychology. Psychology studies the individual’s activities through out his span of life, from his small beginnings before birth up through infancy, childhood, and adolescence to maturity, and still further on through the declining years. During this life history he remains the same individual, but his behavior shows continuity along with many changes. Psychology compares child and the adult, the normal and the abnormal, the human and the animal. It is interested in the differences between one individual and another, and still more interested, if possible, in the general laws of activity holding good even of very different individuals – laws, for example growth, learning, thinking and emotion.
As per above statement, the word ‘activity’ is used here in a very broad sense. [linkunit]It includes not only the motor activities like walking, talking, but also cognitive activities like seeing, hearing, remembering, thinking and emotional activities like laughing, crying, feeling happy or sad etc. These last, and it may seem passive yet they are activities, for they depend on the life of the organism. Any manifestation in life can be called as activity.
Psychology is a science, as it deals with logical reasoning of the happenings in the life of an individual. Today we are equipped with modern techniques and up-to-date pertinent subject knowledge to evaluate any case study, however in the past the people used to make judgments through past experiences. This specific period was known as ‘anecdotal’ period where general impressions were derived and a one-sided view was given. [adsense1]For example the 13th of this month was considered ominous and the same 13th of the next month could bring prosperity etc. Finally the psychologists decided they must follow the lead of physics, chemistry and physiology and transform psychology into an experimental science. Now whenever a process or an activity is studied, experimentation is done to derive ideal logical facts to work upon – to give reliable answers to the theoretical and practical questions that arise. An experiment is sometimes described as a question put to nature and a successful experiment is one that gets a clear answer from the nature. The experimenter approaches the nature with a question and his skill lies in so putting the question as to obtain the answer. To put a question to nature is to arrange the conditions in a certain known way and then observe what happens. The psychological terms refer to the activities of an individual, and should therefore by verbs and adverbs. Nouns such as memory and intelligence are convenient substitutes for longer phrases.