Month: March 2012

What is Conceptualizing?

Conceptualizing has been considered as the most difficult part of the research where the idea is being invented about the research for the first time (Marianne, 2004). It has been discussed very rarely by the researchers. In research training institutes, teachers usually focus over the procedural part of conducting research and they left conceptualization phase and start believing that students would be able to produce a sagacious topic themselves magically, which in reality is not possible. This way of teaching has been criticized for last many years but unfortunately the system of higher education is still the same. But on the other hand it’s alarming because the students have been under trouble while inventing different topics for the research and their uncertainties touches the skies when they are doing it for the first time. So this system should be taken seriously for improvements because otherwise the trouble of students while formulating ideas for research would keep on increasing day by day. It would be beneficial of the researchers would give a bottom line idea to the new research students so that they get the basic idea that how to formulate ideas for researches. Few researchers have said that the idea originates from existing problems of the society but again it is complex to give those ideas a smart shape and a restricted boundary. Although several researches have been done...

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Forward Integration Strategy

The forward integration strategy has been commonly used by many companies due to its popularity in different industries which includes automobiles, fast food, information technology and etc. Forward integration strategy is adopted to gain ownership over its distributors and retailers. This strategy could be implemented by acquiring the existing dealers or company can start opening its outlet on the main locations. Apple Inc. has been working on forward integration strategy since many years. Currently, Apple has 361 stores around the world under its ownership. Microsoft inspires from Apple Inc. are going to open its own stores to directly interact with customer to understand their needs and wants. An easy and effective way of implementing forward integration is franchising. In USA majority of companies has been using franchising to distribute its products and services. Franchising is considered the best way to expand the business around the globe because the financial are distributed among many stakeholders. Macdonald’s and KFC are among the companies who have opened stores globally by employing the franchising. The forward integration may be an effective strategy in following cases: 1. Existing distributors and retailers are expensive and not able to meet the distribution requirements of the firm. 2. When there are no quality distributors available which gives competitive edge to the firm over its competitors. 3. When an organization has resources in terms of human resources to...

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Positivism and Post Positivism

Positivism is a philosophy in which stereotype views are more focused and support their views in any case. It involves the experiences and achievements that were made by the science. This concept was first introduced by the French philosopher A. Comte. Positivism also refers to the concept of epistemology which means “how we came to know” and they hold up with their knowledge. It was also stated that positivism is the rejection of metaphysics which defines the way how to improve the basic principles. There found two forms of positivism; · Ethical positivism · Cognitive positivism Ethical positivism Ethical positivism refers to legality of perspective standards. It lies between the existence of standards and ethical (moral) truths. It remains legal sustains on the judgments of standards not on the ethical truths. Logical positivism is one of the alternatives of ethical positivism which represent of the vision that there is no significant relationship between the rules was and what the rule ought to be. Rule or law may be unfair but they ought to be followed and no one can go against it. It is actually the distinction between “is” and “ought” and the mostly favors “is”. Cognitive positivism Cognitive positivism refers to “is” but they not reliable with the prescriptive standards. Such positivism is explained by the scholarships in which it depends on the criteria about the object and...

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Two Research Fallacies: Ecological and Exception Fallacy

Fallacy is actually an error in a way of thinking and interpretation which is most of the times based on wrong suppositions and statements. Researchers usually know that when they go erroneous and with such fallacies they are at risk too. The two most important research fallacies are; • Ecological fallacy • Exception fallacy Ecological Fallacy Ecological fallacy is made when the assumptions are made with reference to the individuals that are based on assessment of group data or the suppositions that are made on statistical form to have an aggregate collection of data from the area such individuals belong to.  In the ecological studies the facts provided are true and useful but conclusions that are made on certain facts and figures are generally weak because that is not authentic for the rest of data related to specific research. This fallacy is most of the time used by the enthusiastic researcher who wants to prove their abilities to some extent. Ecological fallacy mostly occurs when the statistical data is being used and by mistake interpreted wrongly or incorrectly. For example: a researcher may state that in such colony rents of the houses are $20,000,then its not giving the actual results and discrepancies may be found about the rent to be $15,000 or any other amount. Exception fallacy Exception fallacy is opposite of ecological fallacy, means that suppositions are made...

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Structure of Research

The process of research generally begins from the wider areas of interest which is then precise to a certain problem which the researcher wants to study. Firstly when the topic is realized by the researcher e.g. to know the factors about how to motivate employees and kept their morale high. This is the very broader aspect of study then he/she has to minimize and concise its concept to as much as possible to have a better study. Researcher might use the hypothesis in order to have a precise problem. The structure of the results contains some components in order to have a better research paper because the more interesting the research is built, the more respondents wants to study it. The components are; • Statement problem • Theory formulation View of literature Theoretical framework • Hypothesis • Outcomes • Reference list Statement problem Before the start of the research, one should restricted to a problem and state it in a proper and precise form e.g. in factors involves in employee motivation, as this includes a lot of stuff but researcher has to pick up few and starts studying on that means that he limits himself in such scope and built the research questions by holding himself to that scope. Theory Formulation When the problem statement is built then to make it more appropriate theory formulation is done. Theory formulation...

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Types of Data in Research

Data is actually the raw facts and figures that are very helpful in making good information. In research there are considered to be as two types of data. These are; • Quantitative data • Qualitative data Qualitative Data Qualitative data is something that cannot be measured in numbers or be called as non numeric data. Qualitative data is one that deals with description like behavior, motivation, satisfaction, texture, appearance and knowledge etc. Qualitative research is used to investigate and find perceptive about people behaviors, thoughts, experiences and interests. For example, patients have description of their pain is instead of measuring it. In research qualitative data is gathered by taking people’s interviews and meeting with certain groups. Quantitative Data Quantitative data deals with the numbers means that the data involved can be measured. It includes the examples like height, age, wages, temperature, volume, costs and sales etc. in research, quantitative data is assembled in the form of numeric’s or figures.  For example, census conducted in different countries at national level that calculate the population and households. Relationship Between Quantitative and Qualitative Data Most of the time their found a dissimilarities between qualitative and quantitative data because the point of view was given by different respondent that the data collected in quantitative form is more authentic, credible and with full descriptions whereas in contradiction with that some of the respondents states...

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Deduction and Induction Reasoning

In a wider term, deduction and induction are two approaches that are used in terms of reasoning. Deduction reasoning is used when the concern of having a more precise work from more broaden terms.  However unofficially, it is also called as “top to down approach”. Deductive approach is by nature a narrow one and constrained and it begin with the principle or any valid statement, which involves the following stages; • First it starts from theory that is related to certain topic of our interest. • Then it made narrower to more precise form by conducting hypothesis for testing. • As the deductive approach is concerned with making the work more precise then for that the next stage is observation in which clear cut points were mentioned. • Observation then show the right way to test the hypothesis with to the point facts and figures so that to have a confirmation of the original theories. Inductive reasoning is opposite to the deductive approach which involves the results in broadening form from the precise one and it is also to be called as “bottom up approach” and is imprecise approach most probably at the start and begins with the existing facts and figures. Inductive approach starts from observation. Stages of inductive approach involve; • Precise observation and procedures are taken to proceed further. • Such observation is used to explore...

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What is Hypothesis?

The word hypothesis was originated from a Greek word hyposthenia whose actual meaning is to suppose, a proposal. Thus hypothesis is defined as a supposition, assumption or recognition that is made for the sake of dispute. It is an uncertain clarification/explanation for the observation, phenomenon and any scientific research that are to be checked and experienced for more information or a message or an opinion for the certain partial verification (Browein, 2008). Purpose The purpose of conducting hypothesis is to give an opportunity to different industries, universities, public laboratories as well as government agencies etc to have a debate, presentations and the recent advances made on various researches made by them. Explanation As the hypothesis is the prediction of some scientific research and to know about some further descriptions. Hypothesis doesn’t means that it must be right because hypothesis result may be right or wrong depending upon the research and wrong results are completely acceptable in hypothesis. Good hypothesis depends upon the elements and testing of the research with complete tools. It is a very important part of scientific method and is important component in every discipline. Basically the hypothesis is done on known data and information. Elements of a Good Hypothesis A better hypothesis depends upon some factors which are; • Whether the hypothesis is based on the selective researched topics or not. • The hypothesis is well...

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Ethics in Research

Ethics are actually the principles and values of the society or it can be defined as the thinking of human to under what is right from what is wrong. Without ethics, goals and objectives are not being accomplished. The key element considered for ethics is to understand the morals to which goals and actions are evaluated. Specifically ethics can’t be described in words because they are values which vary from person to person. Research ethics is the definite study of ethical issues that are came up when different people involved in the research. Ethics in research can also be stated as the methods, procedures and perspectives in order to know about the actual issues, resolve complex issues and how to act to them. The research might be taken in every perspective of life globally like physiological, economical and sociological etc. Importance of Ethics in Research Importance of research in ethics can be explained as; • Promote the aim of research that includes the reality, information and avoidance of error as the research is done by the coordination of different people from different discipline. • Values that are essentials to mutual work that involves the fairness among people, faith and the mutual respect.  • Public support is also the important principle because by building trust among people, they start funding in the research projects. • Principle of research involves variation...

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Marketing Plan of Wal-Mart

In 1962, a public retailing company was started with the name of Wal-Mart whose founder was Sam Walton. This retailing company was headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas, America. Wal-Mart has to be considered as second largest corporation operating in the world. The company is completely owned by Walton family and is operated by president and CEO Mike Duke. Wal-Mart is called to be the varieties of stores at low prices, it includes neighborhood markets, discount stores, membership warehousing club and Sam club’s etc. operations and services are provided all around world. They provide their services with very minimum delivery time and less shipping cost. The company uses different technology at different times to enhance the services and that appeals the customers because of the consumption at lesser time. Statement of Marketing Goal Values and goals of the Wal-Mart Corporation are considered to be the basic functions which are operated by their employees, those are stated as; • To control the organizational work proper assistance is provided • Offering packages related to discounts. • Accurate guidance to the workers • Employees evaluation at every step just because of smooth progress Wal-Mart SWOT Analysis Strength • Wal-Mart is very much advantageous because of shipments because they deliver the goods at very cheaper cost and through effective routs. • Their official website is more beneficial for them because it create more convenience for...

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