Month: May 2011

Non probability Sampling

1. Non Probability Sampling The non probability sampling may or may not necessarily represent the whole population as in this type of sampling the sample selection is not done by the random means; unlike the probability sampling. Owing to the fact that random selection procedure is tyrannous and time consuming as it needs the scattered samples from the whole population, the non probability sampling is done purposively, according to the judgment of the researching team that which population or group can fulfill their most of the research demands. The generalization phenomenon cannot be preferably employs on that as it may not necessarily represent the whole population as the selection of sample was biased. 2. Suitability of Non-probability Sampling Non probability sampling is not applicable every where rather there are certain limitations and criteria specified for the usage of this sampling considering the requirements of the research being carried on. 1.The preferred use of sampling would be in the case when there is need of demonstrating the specific characteristics in certain groups or populations. 2.The studies, in which the parameters like exploratory research, qualitative or the pilot study is to be incorporated, are facilitated by the use of non probability sampling. 3.When the random selection is not possible as in the case of unlimited population then the selection is made according to the principles of non probability sampling to cover...

Read More

External Validity

The extent of performing the relationship between the variables elucidating the large population is referred to as generalization and the validity of generalized scientific inferences is referred to as external validity. The cause effect relationship, if able to be generalized from specific inferences of particular population or group of study to other population settings then, it is assumed to be externally valid. The external validity is highest in the case of casual inferences as they can be applied in diverse situations across space and time. The major loss associated with the external validity is that the qualitative relationship between cause and the effect is made from the small sample of limited geography, which may not be applied as it to other demographic locations. 2. Threats Associated With External Validity The facts and figures of generalization may be a major threat to external validity as they might not always be correct in its explanation. When certain results associated with specific demography, at definite time and the place and generalization is made that the inference of that study is applicable to other demographic location, time and some other group or population then the threats would be of three types; • People • Places • Time The argument of the critics may be that the time of study was peculiar or the people or population or the sample taken for the study...

Read More

Survey Research and Types

1. Survey Research The behaviors and thoughts related to certain population are gathered in the form of statistical surveys or the questionnaires leading to the phenomenon of the survey research. The broad information is collecting the question responses from the respondents and the surveys are conducted for the detailed knowledge through written ideas related to certain subjects. 2. Types of Surveys Time dimensions are taken into account for the survey methods. Generally the survey methods are divided into two large spectrums that are longitudinal surveys and cross sectional surveys. 2.1. Longitudinal surveys The survey samples are collected along the timeline at different times to study the trends of change that has occurred in the extensive time period. As the students behavior is studied selecting the junior class and then moving onwards to the high grades to demonstrate the change in abilities quantitatively and time over the extended time period. The longitudinal surveys are subdivided further into Panel studies, trend studies and cohort studies. 2.1.1. Panel Studies In panel studies the subject of study over the extended time would be the same as explained above. 2.1.2. Trend studies The trend is observed over the time to but the subjects though from the same population would be different at different times of the study. 2.1.3. Cohort Studies The samples would be drawn from the specific group at different intervals but would...

Read More

Data Collecting Instruments

Data is the evaluation resource to infer that whether the desired adjectives are achieved or the program followed was inappropriate. The fate of the research is very much dependent upon the instruments being used for either the quantitative or the qualitative data. The collection of data has a strong association with administering instruments along with data organization for analysis. The data collecting instruments includes census, sample surveys, administrative collection or registries, questionnaire and personal interview; of which former three are most frequently used. Census Census in the most accurate data collection instrument as it includes all the subjects of the population covering all the attributes of the data requirements. The technique however requires high expenditures and considerably very huge time. The census is the most regular and systematic phenomenon for data collection. The census though seen mostly in the context of population censuses but may include other censuses as well including housing census, business census, traffic census and agriculture census. Where sampling is the subset of population, the census involves the universal set of population where each and every element of the population is included.  The main purpose Sample Surveys In contrast to census the sample survey, as indicated by the name includes only the sample of population representing the whole population covering its all attributes. Though it consumes less time and money but is not preferred over census...

Read More

Qualitative Research

Introduction Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. Its main attributes are that it; • Systematically uses a predefined set of methods to answer the question • Collects evidence • Aims to work in natural conditions • Produces findings that are not determined in advance • Produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study Moreover it seeks to understand a given research problem from the perspectives of the local population it involves. Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations. The major strength of the qualitative research method is its ability to contextualize people’s experiences on a given research problem. It provides information about the “human” side of an issue – that is, the often contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals. It is used to gain information about people’s attitude, behavior, culture, life style, motivations through surveys, open ended interviews and questionnaires. It involves the analysis of unstructured material including reports, feedbacks and media clipping and informing the policy formation, business decisions and communication and research. Pros of Qualitative Methods • It gives more detailed and comprehensive information as compare to the quantitative research method. • This method is often less expensive as compare to quantitative research method as it does not involve many participants or extensive methods....

Read More

Sampling Methods

The main theme that is associated with the sampling is to evaluate the large study area through testing the limited representative material that would then serve to explore and create trends in the area under study. The material that is taken for testing is referred to as sample and its distribution and proportion would be such as, it covers all the properties of the discipline or the area under study (Taggart, 1945). Certain methods of sampling are developed, that are executed according to the type of sampling being carried out. The preceding context would elaborate various types of sampling, which includes • Simple random sampling • Systematic sampling • Statistical surveys • Stratified sampling • Cluster sampling • Multistage sampling • Non-probability sampling Simple Random Sampling The simple random sampling refers to the sample selection randomly or purely by chance, without having any preference or favor for that sample at the expense of ease of handling or in other words without biasness. In such samples there is an equal chance for each entity under study to be selected as a sample, representing the entire study area or a population. Statistically sample obtained from SRS is actually the subset of the individuals, population or the area selected for study (Yates et al., 2008). However it would be note worthy that Random sampling is different from the simple random sampling. In...

Read More

Quantitative Research

Introduction Quantitative research is quantifying the relationship between the dependant and independent variables. This relation ship is expressed through using statistical effects such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between the mean. Variables can be things like weight, temperature, length, time and treatment. Quantitative research studies are objective, deductive (test the theory), generalizable and it uses the data in the form of numbers as compare to qualitative research studies. Quantitative research methods are used in the market: • When we want to know how many and how often • When we want to outline the behaviors and intentions of the target audience on selected determinants or variables and weather these determinants predict a behavior at statistical level significantly. Quantitative market research generally involves surveying a large group of people (usually several hundred) using a closed ended questionnaires. Advantages Quantitative research is an excellent way of finalizing the results and proving and disapproving the hypothesis. Its structure has not changed for centuries so it is considered standard across many disciplines. The results of the quantative research can be published legitimately by receiving the comprehensive answers through statistical analysis. The results obtained from this research are unbiased and real because of the elimination of external factors. Quantative experiments are useful for verifying the results obtained from series of qualitative experiments, leading to final answer and tapering down to possible direction for...

Read More

Porter’s Diamond Model

The Porter’ diamond model was described in his book Competitive Advantage of Nations; it’s an economical model theory, where Porter has approached the facts and figures regarding excel of certain corporation in particular and suitable locations. The Porter has practically advanced by relating the four practical factors and the behaviors related to the particular companies excelling in the particular demographic locations and have also established the government’s pro-active attitude towards influencing the particular business (Bruce and Pitts, 1988). Traditional country advantages The traditional economic approach of comparing the competitive advantages of the nations included Location, Land, and natural resources including the fuels and minerals, land, population size at particular location and the associated labor with that population. But the economic opportunity of the nation was scarcely affected by such detriment as mentioned above rather they were considered passive in this regard. Porter’s view was quite diverged from this inherited view of factors influencing the opportunities and considered such factors in destabilizing the expected out puts regarding the competitive advantages. Porter’s Concept of Clusters The term clusters as perceived by the Porter was associated with the assemblage of interrelated entrepreneurs, the interconnected industries, suppliers and the firms that were coupled with certain demographic location. And in the view of Porter the inclusion of capable labor, a competent technology, strong base of knowledge, the specific culture of the nation and alliance...

Read More