Guttman scale is a type of one dimensional scaling method established by Louis Guttman. This scaling is also known as Cumulative Scaling.  This scale mostly involves the dichotomous scale with the answers like Yes or no, agrees or disagrees etc. The statements provided in this scale specifically increases with the explanation of same statements. This scaling involves the concept of immigration. The scale is most commonly developed to know the actual responses as per to the total score from the participants, for example if the score determined is 3then it means that appropriately first 3 statements are favorable or agreed. To develop this scale following steps are required;

Defining the Focus

Firstly, the focus is determined for the scale, which is at the beginning properly built up as done in all the methods of one dimensional scaling. This scaling requires the proper understanding about the particular type and position of scale.

Develop the Items

The step involves the production of the statement which is comprises of many statements without any limit. The statements, objects etc. can be developed by a single person or group of knowledgeable people. If the statements are established by the different number of people then the statements are considered to be more authentic because with the variation in questions the different types of respondents are satisfied.

Rate the Items

[large]In this type of scaling, number of judges sit together with their different knowledge and rate the statements as according to the concept of immigration. The rates are allocated as for the favorable statements; satisfied opinion is provided by the judges and for unfavorable the opinions like No is stated by judges. In all this the judges are not required to impose their own opinions only the evaluation is based on the respondent’s views.

The Cumulative Scale

The Guttman scaling is the analysis for the measurement. Different matrix and the tables are formulated in order to present the statements which are evaluated by the respondents. The arrangement is made on the respondent’s views then the statements with positive points are allotted at the top and negative aspects are allocated at the top. The statements that attain the same response would be stated from left side to the right in increasing trend with respect to the other ones that have fewer responses. It means that all the items are listed as according to the response. For example, if the people with the fourth item are agree then from this scale it is obvious that the previous three items are selected by all of them.

Administering the Scale

[linkunit]It is the last step in which the scale is administer which is comparatively an easy way to examine the statements. In this step simply the items are given to the respondents to check their evaluation about the favorable ones. In case of the immigration concept, objects are hypothetically presented in the cumulative trend.


• Guttman, L. (1950). The basis for scalogram analysis. In Stouffer et al. Measurement and Prediction. The American Soldier Vol. IV. New York: Wiley.

•, accessed on April 11, 2012.

• Weldon. F, Martin. D, (1969). Two comments on Guttman Scaling. Vol 75, page (278-280) published in university of Chicago press.