Positivism is a philosophy in which stereotype views are more focused and support their views in any case. It involves the experiences and achievements that were made by the science. This concept was first introduced by the French philosopher A. Comte. Positivism also refers to the concept of epistemology which means “how we came to know” and they hold up with their knowledge. It was also stated that positivism is the rejection of metaphysics which defines the way how to improve the basic principles. There found two forms of positivism;

· Ethical positivism

· Cognitive positivism

Ethical positivism

Ethical positivism refers to legality of perspective standards. It lies between the existence of standards and ethical (moral) truths. It remains legal sustains on the judgments of standards not on the ethical truths. Logical positivism is one of the alternatives of ethical positivism which represent of the vision that there is no significant relationship between the rules was and what the rule ought to be. Rule or law may be unfair but they ought to be followed and no one can go against it. It is actually the distinction between “is” and “ought” and the mostly favors “is”.

Cognitive positivism

Cognitive positivism refers to “is” but they not reliable with the prescriptive standards. Such positivism is explained by the scholarships in which it depends on the criteria about the object and other is the method. Cognitive positivism explains the proper study of the object of original attitude of the people.

Post Positivism

[large]Where as post positivism refers to have more knowledge from the existing one, improve the basic principles and main beliefs that’s why by the philosophy of post positivism the stereotype scientists no more exists. Post positivism is so called the revival of about the previous utilization and principles of the researchers. Knowledge and practice of the research in post positivism is applicable morally as well as morally. By most of the scientists, the most of the data is used in order to have their own research with respect to the post positivism because to conduct the data related to post positivism become very much difficult. In some of the cases public perceptions are overcome by the social views. In post positivism it is concluded that qualitative research is conducted despite of quantitative.

Some of the factors that are approaches by the researchers to attain post positivism are;

  • The researcher impend the positivism approach and use there own epistemology. Also in the point of view of a researcher understandings should be taken about the maintenance and construction. [linkunit]
  • Assumption role is taken in the research by the post positivists rather then testing it. By analyzing the opportunities and the challenges the researcher can build up a relation with the people.
  • In post positivism approach, one could prefer and usually interested in establishing the worth of the problem rather then to solve it.
  • It possesses to analyze the research with respect to the political as well as social circumstances but is not working on knowing the overall truth.


  • Fiss, Owen M., "The Varieties of Positivism" (1981). Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 1219.
  • www.socialresearchmethods.com, accessed on March 29, 2012.
  • B. Ryan, A, “Post Positivist approach to research”.