In a wider term, deduction and induction are two approaches that are used in terms of reasoning. Deduction reasoning is used when the concern of having a more precise work from more broaden terms.  However unofficially, it is also called as “top to down approach”. Deductive approach is by nature a narrow one and constrained and it begin with the principle or any valid statement, which involves the following stages;

• First it starts from theory that is related to certain topic of our interest.

• Then it made narrower to more precise form by conducting hypothesis for testing.

• As the deductive approach is concerned with making the work more precise then for that the next stage is observation in which clear cut points were mentioned.

• Observation then show the right way to test the hypothesis with to the point facts and figures so that to have a confirmation of the original theories.
Inductive reasoning is opposite to the deductive approach which involves the results in broadening form from the precise one and it is also to be called as “bottom up approach” and is imprecise approach most probably at the start and begins with the existing facts and figures. Inductive approach starts from observation. Stages of inductive approach involve;

• Precise observation and procedures are taken to proceed further.

• Such observation is used to explore more about the strategies, pattern and regulations.[linkunit]

• Uncertain hypothesis is conducted by the formulation of patterns to survey and investigate.

• At the end all of the surveys come up with development of theory or conclusions.

Most of the times both of these approaches are used by some organizations in the same projects. While using these approaches probable limits must be kept in mind.

## Examples of Deduction and Induction

[large]In case of deductive approach, conclusions are made through the premises that means that all the statements stated are true like if there are two statements 1) all men are mortal, 2) john is a man, as from deductive approach if both the statements are true then it is concluded that john is mortal. The conclusion derived from the deductive approach is always being true.

For inductive approach, if there are some statements like there is a black stone, that is a black stone and the third one is also a black stone, so from inductive approach all stones are black but if universally it is not true. Most of the time results govern from the inductive approach are not valid.

## Possibility of errors in deductive and inductive reasoning

In the deductive reasoning, there may arouse the possibility of error in understanding the actual meaning of any issue which doesn’t interpret the real significance.

As far as inductive reasoning is concerned, possibilities of errors are many more, some of them are stated as;

• Prospect of having incomplete details of the relevant data.

• Nature of the selected fact may be insufficient.

• The relationship between the selected facts and the actual principles might be insufficient.

• Prospect of having inadequate selection of the facts.

## References

• www.socialresearchmethods.net, accessed on 26 March 2012.

• Nicole, r. induction and deduction with reference to inspiration.

• (Mankato: G. Bruno & Co., 1992). Deduction and induction, published by enrichment study 12, Ron yezzi.